Rambler's Top100




.  . 1909 .Gorbunov Nikolay Petrovich (1892-1938) Petersburg-Leningrad. The outstanding Soviet statesman, the colleague of V.I. Lenin, one of organizers of the Soviet science, the academician. It was the chief of the Soviet-German expedition to Pamir in 1928, and then he was the chief of Tadzhiko-Pamirskaja expedition of Academy of science of the USSR in 1932-1935. N.P. Gorbunov was born in Krasnoe Selo Village of Petersburg province in family of a process-engineer, manager of Krasnoselskaja paper-mill. In 1917 he graduated from the Petersburg Institute of Technology. He took part in February revolution in 1917. Since July 1917 he managed Information bureau of All-Union Central Executive Committee. Since November 1917 he was a secretary of Sovnarkom and personal secretary of V.I. Lenin. He organized cooperation between the Russian Academy of Science and other scientific institutes and the Soviet authority being manager of Scientific and Technical Department of All-Union Department of National Economy, in 1918-1919. In 1919-1920 he had a political activity in the Red Army, and was a member of Revolution Military Council of 14th and 13th armies. He was awarded with the Red Banner award for the battle activities. From 1920 up to 1922 he managed the deals of the National Commissioner Union of USSR. He combined the state work with scientific activity. In 1923-1929 he was a rector of Moscow Technial University, in 1928-1932 he was a chairman of the scientific commission of chemicalization committee, and one of organizers of Agricultural academy named after V.I. Lenin, in 1931-1933 was the director assistant of Karpov Chemical Institute, and was  a member of the State plan of the USSR in 1931-1934. In 1935 Gorbunov was selected to be an academician on geographic specialty. From that moment he became an indispensable secretary of Academy of Scienc of the USSR.

Gorbunov was the passionate fan of mountain travel. In 1928 he was the head of the Soviet-German expedition to Pamir together with O.Ju. Shmidt and N.V. Krylenko. Nearly all large expeditions to Pamir in 30th years passed under his management.

There is a high-mountainous area in a southeast of the country carrying the ancient Tibetan name Pamir, that means The Roof of the World. Four main Asian ridges converge there in grandiose unit, Tien Shan, Kuenlun Shan, Hindu Kush and the Himalayas forms a huge deserted mountain plateau. In 1928 the Academy of Science of the USSR organized a great expedition to Pamir, to the center of not investigated area Tanymas, a white spot of a geographical map. Nikolay Gorbunov was appointed to be a chief of this expedition. The expedition included topographers, astronomers, geographers, geologists, mineralogists, biologists, linguists. Expedition left the Kirghiz city Osh. A caravan was of 250 camels and 200 horses. It passed through Alayskiy Ridge and went down to Alayskaja valley located at height of 3000 m. Eyes of travellers saw a remarkable kind of TransAlaiskiy Ridge, sparkling on the sun with ice tops and glaciers. The main peak of 7132 m they named Lenin Peak. Then expedition passed through TransAlaiskiy Ridge by ancient caravan way, went through Markansu valley of death and a valley of Lake Karakul at height of 4000 m and after the most dangerous ferries through the river Tanymas they went to novel area. Further it was no road because of huge glacier following from the south from side gorge blocked Tanymas Valley. Topographer Dorofeyev with two Red Army men was the first one who rose on this glacier and reached undistinguished ice pass at height of 4590 m (pass Tanymas). He saw the picture of shaking beauty: the huge unknown glacier with width of 3,5 km, sparkled with all colors of a rainbow, and tens of ice tops in height more than 6000 meters wiht the very dark sky as a background. It was nothing known about such a huge glacier earlier, and Dorofeyev decided to go downwards glacier without a tent. He tended to understand, what a glacier is and where it flows to. He went about 15 km downwards from glacier turn and saw another glacier on the left. He recognized it under the description of captain Kosinenko topographer who has been there in 1909 and has named the inflow glacier Bivachniy (Camp) Glacier. The big glacier appeared to be Fedchenko Glacier opened and named by V.F. Oshanin in 1878. Oshanin moved from Muksu Valley, he could not rise on a tongue of Fedchenko Glacier and estimated its length as 25 km. Thus, honour of true of Fedchenko Glacier opening with length of 77 km belongs to participants of expedition of 1928. Participants of the expedition saw a very high peak of 7495 m in the distance from pass Tanymas. Later they named it Stalin Peak, in 1957 it was renamed into Communism Peak. Now this peak is on Tajikistans land and is renamed again. It refers to as Ismoil Somoni Peak in honour of the founder of the Tadjik statehood. On September, 3rd, 1933 Evgeniy Abalakov and Nikolay Gorbunov together went to storm Stalin Peak (7495). Gorbunov couldnt overcome last 200 meters to the top and remained to expect E. Abalakov because of the freezed fingers of his legs. A peak (6026) of Tanymas Ridge (on Pamir) was named after Nikolay Gorbunov.

From memoirs of storm participants. 2 persons died, the climber N.A. Nikolaev was broken from a crest and the porter Dzhambaj Irale died from a pneumonia. From 6400 m high Gorbunov + 5 started to storm (22.08): E.M. Abalakov, A.F. Getje, D.I. Gushchin (had trauma at the further rise), J.M. Shijanov (later was ill), A.G. Harlampiev (later stopped). Height is 6900, 31.08.33 N.P. Gorbunov, E.M. Abalakov, A.F. Getje have remained. 1-2.09 ther is a snow storm Getje feel bad. Morning of 3.09 (6900 m high). Gorbunov and leave on top. Gorbunov lags behind. Abalakov continues a way. Gorbunov stops at 7380 m high. There is 115 m up to the top! Abalakov goes left a backpack. He peers afair. Abruptly The Deep snow The Penetrating wind. What to do? To recede? No, the top calls and demands!. This idea does not leave him. A pretopmost crest. It is safe to leave Gorbunov here. Only one still goes. One of six. goes forward E.M. Abalakov climbed the peak at 2.9.1933. N.P. Gorbunov was arrested on 19.02.1938. He was sentenced on charge of espionage at 07.09.1938. He was shot at 07.09.1938. He was rehabilitated at 13.03.1954.

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