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Крыленко Николай ВасильевичKrylenko Nikolay Vasiljevich (1885-1938) – Petersburg-Leningrad. He had 2 high educations. He graduated from Historyco-Philological faculty (1903-1909) and from Law Faculty (1912-1917) of Imperial St.-Petersburg University. He was an outstanding statesman, he was a first Commander-in-chief of Red Army (1917-1918); a member of Central Committee of (…), a member of All-Union Central Executive Committee (ACEC) Presidium, a member of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (1927-1934), the General public prosecutor, the People's commissar of justice of the USSR. N.V. Krylenko was the auther of more than 80 scientific works, including ones concerning theory and practice of the Soviet justice. N.V. Krylenko was born in 1885 in Sychyovsky district of Smolensk province, Behteevo village in the family of employee, who was exiled as a participant of revolutionary movement of 1880th years. In 1903 he entered on Historico-Philological faculty of Imperial St.-Petersburg University. At 1904 at the age of 19 he entered to Bolsheviks party become the active participant of revolutionary underground work. In 1909 he got the first degree diploma of the Petersburg University of a historian speciality. All these years he actively participates in revolutionary work. In 1912 (at age of 27) he again entered to the Petersburg university on Law faculty. Simultaneously he passed three Master examination for scientific degree without attending lectures. In December of 1913 he was arrested and sent from a capital. He went to Kharkov, where he participated in preparation of a congress. There he passed examination of full course of sciences of the Petersburg University, Law Faculty. It was the first degree diploma again. In 1915 he was arrested again and sent to front under an escort. Krylenko met the February revolution of 1917 in entrenchments. In 1917 N.V. Krylenko was one of the most active participants of October armed revolt. He became a member of the first Soviet government as a member of Military Committee of sea affairs. Then the Soviet government appointed him to be a Supreme commander in chief, and since November, 21st, 1917 he was the First Central board of Red army.

Since March, 1918 N.V. Krylenko worked in judicial authorities; he was one of Soviet court and Office of Public Prosecutor organizers. During twenty years he was the assistant of the people's commissar of justice, then the public prosecutor of republic, the national commissioner of justice of the USSR.

Has started to do climbing in 1914 when he rose on Den-Do-Rashe snow peak in the Alpes together with Lenin and two other satellites. In 1928-1934 he headed the All-Union society of proletarian tourism and supervised over climbing expeditions on Pamir. He was the Deserved Master of sport on climbing (1934).

In 1924-1937 he was the First chairman of All-Union chess section (14 years!). The Soviet chess players remember it as the first head of the Soviet chess movement. Lasker and Capablanka came to Moscow owing to its organizing efforts.

 He was the first Chairman of Climbing Federation of the USSR (1937). He wrote six books about climbing.

In 1927 he climbed to Elbrus together with Stah Ganezki of 16 years old.

In 1928 he took part in the Soviet-German expedition to Pamir devoted to 200th anniversary of the Academy of sciences of the USSR. The powerful group went to Pamir where 26 qualified experts entered: geologist D.I.Shcherbakov, professor N.L. Korzhenevsky, geodesists I.G. Dorofeev and K.V. Isakov, meteorologist R.R. Tsimmerman, zoologist A.N. Rejhart, astronomer I.J. Beljaev, climbers N.V. Krylenko, O.Ju. Shmidt and 11 person of German group.

The Soviet and German climbers made about 30 climbings on peaks of 5000 up to 6000 meters high, 7 climbings on peakss over 6000 meters high. Besides German climbers E. Alvejn, K. Vin and E. Shnejder rose on September 25th, 1928 to Lenin peak in fast rate ».

Academician D.I. Scherbakov estimated results of expedition of 1928 such a way. «A teamwork of the Soviet and German researchers gave a great result in researching of the Central and Western Pamir areas. A topographical map was made, areas of Kara-Kul lake, pools of Tanymas and Kara-Jilga rivers and glaciers, Fedchenko glacier were surveyed, pass ways from Fedchenko glacier to Vancha valley were surveyed, the powerful ice congelation on border of the Western Pamir was established, deposits of some minerals were found out and other works were executed.

In 1929 the prospecting party of Main prospecting Department was directed to Pamir (to Suuk-Saja valley). N.V. Krylenko was the chief of this expedition, and scientific and technical management was carried out by geologist D.V. Nikitin. Krylenko rised up to height of 6850 meters on Lenin Peak. It was the highest point for Soviet climber at that time.

In 1930 the Tadjik expedition of the Academy of sciences worked at the territory of Tadjik SSR. The expedition primary goal was geographical research of east part of a Peter the Great Ridge on Pamir, accompanied with photogrammometrical shooting of ridge area and its geological studying.
Expedition program also included researches of mineral sources of South Eastern Pamir and gases allocated by them, studying of mineral sources of Alajskiy Ridge and mercury deposits of Southern Fergana.

Works of Krylenko and Nikitin expedition in 1929 and subsequent researchings of the Tadjik expedition of 1930 only started to solve a question on distribution of gold-bearing retinues of Sauksarskiy district in a southwest direction. A huge mountain unit on the left board of Fedchenko glacier remained still mysterious. It attracted climbers in 1928, seem such a close and accessible in 1929, involved an expedition of 1930, more and more securing the name of Garmo Unit.

In 1931 the Academy of sciences of the USSR directed an investigation group to the east part of Peter the Great Ridge continuing complex works of Pamir research begun in 1928. The task was, first of all, to make a geographical description of this almost novel area, drawing up of its topographical map and general geological characteristic prepareing. However geodesists, astronomers and geologists works in severe conditions of wild highest ridges, cutted with deep gorges with rough rivers and ice tongues demanded for the special technical help which only skilled, trained climbers used to stay at greater heights could render.

Therefore the Academy of sciences suggested N.V. Krylenko, the chairman of Society of proletarian tourism to become a chapter of expedition. His experience and organizational help were the keystone of success.

 The group of scouts-climbers managed by L.L. Barhash was the basic kernel of expedition. Astronomer I.D. Zhongolovich and topographer I.G. Dorofeyev provided cartographical works, and geologists T.B. Bohr and D.I. Shcherbakov solved geological tasks.

I.G. Dorofeyev established a mistake of the German geodesists who defined that Garmo Peak was the highest peak of Soviet Union when processed results of phototheodolitic shooting of Peter the Great Ridge. It appeared, Garmo Peak and peak 7495 (subsequently named Stalin Peak, and then Communism Peak) are different peaks. Garmo Peak is 6595 m high, Communism Peak is 7495 m high, being the highest top of the Soviet Union, and is located considerably to the north of Garmo Peak. Geodesists of A.V. Moskvin group obtained the same results.

In 1932 the Tadjik complex expedition was organized. It has to solve some scientific and practical questions. It captured various areas of researches as arisen under the initiative of Tajikistan government, scientific geologists and heads of the Second Between-national Polar Year.

The organization and the general management of expedition was assigned to N.P. Gorbunov. The general head of geochemical works was A.E. Fersman academician, of geological works - D.V. Nalivkin, the curator on gold was D.V. Nikitin; hydrological and meteorological works were spent by N.A. Kakaulov, V.I. Popov and I.A. Kireev; over phototheodolitic and geodetic works were supervised by I.G. Dorofeev, zoological group was supervised by E.N. Pavlovsky academician, in the chapter of an agricultural brigade was N.I. Vavilov academician and M.G. Popov; at last, the special climbing group was conducted by N.V. Krylenko.

Problems of expedition included also detailed studying of Pamir glacial areas, conditions of snow fields formation and dynamics of a glacial feed sources of Amu-Darja river. For this purpose a constant glaciermeteorological station arrangement was planned on Fedchenko Glacier at height of 4000 meters. The primary goal of expedition was the physico-geographical description of a country surface on the basis of exact triangulable and cartographical works.

After researches of the Sovjet-German expedition in 1928 and subsequent works it seemed, that no “white spots” remained on Pamir and Tajikistan territory, except for the small area adjoining from the West to Garmo Peak. Actually it was not so, and the significant part of interesting novelties was geographical openings. Geodetic works in the Central Pamir, along Surhob, Hingow rivers, etc were performed by the expedition. Thus triangulable items were pawned at heights of 5000-5500 meters.

Regular geological works captured the Central Pamirarea for the first time have, prepareing the edition of some sheets of a geological map as a bases of a further riches of the country. Researches captured also Pamiro-Darvazskiy gold-bearing belt. Gold-wearing veins of Sauk-Say, sands of Mukh-Su, northern slopes of Peter the Great Ridge, a valley of Hingou river and Darvaz conglomerates developed since olden days were studied.

In 1933 the expedition was expanded and renamed to Tadjico-Pamirskaja expedition. It concentrated attention at the sanction of some problems of heavy industry. Its works were constructed by a territorial principle. Five basic geographically isolated areas of Tajikistan were outlined as a result of last year researches. They had certain complexes of minerals and independent energy sources. According to the allocated areas of Northern Tajikistan such as Zeravshanskiy, Stalinabadskiy, Darvazskiy and Pamir, expedition organized groups of a number of smaller groups with independent regional bases.

N.V. Krylenko's group finished its inspection of east part of Peter the Great Ridge, and all area appeared to be covered with topographical and geological shooting. Thanks to heroic efforts of scientific employees and working builders a well equipped ice-meteorological observatory was put in operation at the greatest in the world Fedchenko Glacier, at height of 4300 meters.

The incorporated group of expedition and ОПТЭ after thorough training climbed at the highest in the USSR Stalin Peak 7495 m high, and two automatic meteorological stations were established on its east slope at heights of 5600 and 6850 m. This climbing was accompanied wiht lifting and installation of heavy scientific devices.

In 1934 N.V. Krylenko headed great expedition to Pamir where climbers of Red Army participated. Krylenko arrived to the camp in the second half of August. It is necessary to notice, that he participated in all Pamir campaigns only within his usual holiday, practically not having time for acclimatization.

So was this time. Krylenko as well as all others, with a solid cargo rose to height of 5200 m where the intermediate camp was organized. In four days, on August 23rd Krylenko conducts all group (24 persons including commanders, instructors and doctors) to storm the peak. On August, 29th the group reached height of 7000 m, but weather noticeably worsened last days. There were strong winds, snowfalls, sharp downturn of temperature, there was a danger to froze legs, insufficient acclimatization was felt. And it was some more hours of wearisome rise and prospect of descent per full darkness ahead. The command was to go down! The group came back in the camp at height of 4200 m in two days.

On the 8th September, 1934 he let out a group of E. Abalakov as instructor, a pilot K.Chernuhin as a commander of group of and a commander I.Lukin. At 16. 20 they reached the top where they established a bust of V.I. Lenin.

The way of climbers was hard, consequences of a bad weather affected. A significant part of rise instructors Abalakov brothers tracked a way. Unfortunately, E. Abalakov did not participate in a capture of peak. When two participants frozed their legs E. Abalakov has voluntary agreed to allocate them downwards. Nikolay Vasilevich marked Evgenie Abalakova's act as display of the big heroism and selflessness.

  • In 1934 the rank The Deserved master of climbing was appropriated to Krylenko.

  • In 1935 Krylenko was the soul of the first alpiniade to Elbrus of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.

  • In 1936 there was the Second Pamir Red Army expedition to Lenin Peak. N.V. Krylenko and 173 persons rose up to 6000 m, but have receded because of a bad weather.

  • In 1937 (23.01.37) Krylenko was selected to be the first chairman of Climbing Federation of the USSR (a Climbing section of All-Union committee of physical culture and sports of the USSR) and prepared for sport expedition to Pamir.  Two seven-thousandth giants of Lenin Peak, Stalin Peak were conquested during the expedition. Krylenko could not participate in these climbings for the reasons of work as the government member.

He was arrested on 1st February, 1938. He was charge to be a member of a terrorist organization and was sentenced to execution at 29.07.1938. The. He was shot at 29.07.1938. He was rehabilitated at 10.08.1955.

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