(1885-1938) – Petersburg-Leningrad. He had 2 high educations. He graduated
from Historyco-Philological faculty (1903-1909) and from Law Faculty
(1912-1917) of Imperial St.-Petersburg University. He was an outstanding
statesman, he was a first Commander-in-chief of Red Army (1917-1918); a
member of Central Committee of (…), a
member of All-Union Central Executive Committee (ACEC) Presidium, a member
of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (1927-1934), the General
public prosecutor, the People's commissar of justice of the USSR. N.V.
Krylenko was the auther of more than 80 scientific works, including ones
concerning theory and practice of the Soviet justice. N.V. Krylenko was born
in 1885 in Sychyovsky district of Smolensk province, Behteevo village in the
family of employee, who was exiled as a participant of revolutionary
movement of 1880th years. In 1903 he entered on Historico-Philological
faculty of Imperial St.-Petersburg University. At 1904 at the age of 19 he
entered to Bolsheviks party become the active participant of revolutionary
underground work. In 1909 he got the first degree diploma of the Petersburg
University of a historian speciality. All these years he actively
participates in revolutionary work. In 1912 (at age of 27) he again entered
to the Petersburg university on Law faculty. Simultaneously he passed three
Master examination for scientific degree without attending lectures. In
December of 1913 he was arrested and sent from a capital. He went to Kharkov,
where he participated in preparation of a congress. There he passed
examination of full course of sciences of the Petersburg University, Law
Faculty. It was the first degree diploma again. In 1915 he was
arrested again and sent to front under an escort. Krylenko met the February
revolution of 1917 in entrenchments. In 1917 N.V. Krylenko was
one of the most active participants of October armed revolt. He became a
member of the first Soviet government as a member of Military Committee of
sea affairs. Then the Soviet government appointed him to be a Supreme
commander in chief, and since November, 21st, 1917 he was the First Central
board of Red army.
March, 1918 N.V. Krylenko worked in judicial authorities; he was one of
Soviet court and Office of Public Prosecutor organizers. During twenty years
he was the assistant of the people's commissar of justice, then the public
prosecutor of republic, the national commissioner of justice of the USSR.
started to do climbing in 1914 when he rose on Den-Do-Rashe snow peak in the
Alpes together with Lenin and two other satellites. In 1928-1934 he headed
the All-Union society of proletarian tourism and supervised over climbing
expeditions on Pamir. He was the Deserved Master of sport on climbing
was the First chairman of All-Union chess section (14 years!). The Soviet
chess players remember it as the first head of the Soviet chess movement.
Lasker and Capablanka came to Moscow owing to its organizing efforts.
was the first Chairman of Climbing Federation of the USSR (1937). He wrote
six books about climbing.
climbed to Elbrus together with Stah Ganezki of 16 years old.
1928 he took
part in the Soviet-German expedition to Pamir devoted to 200th anniversary
of the Academy of sciences of the USSR. The powerful group went to Pamir
where 26 qualified experts entered: geologist D.I.Shcherbakov, professor
N.L. Korzhenevsky, geodesists I.G. Dorofeev and K.V. Isakov, meteorologist
R.R. Tsimmerman, zoologist A.N. Rejhart, astronomer I.J. Beljaev, climbers
N.V. Krylenko, O.Ju. Shmidt and 11 person of German group.
Soviet and German climbers made about 30 climbings on peaks of 5000 up to
6000 meters high, 7 climbings on peakss over 6000 meters high. Besides
German climbers E. Alvejn, K. Vin and E. Shnejder rose on September 25th,
1928 to Lenin peak in fast rate ».
D.I. Scherbakov estimated results of expedition of 1928 such a way. «A
teamwork of the Soviet and German researchers gave a great result in
researching of the Central and Western Pamir areas. A topographical map was
made, areas of Kara-Kul lake, pools of Tanymas and Kara-Jilga rivers and
glaciers, Fedchenko glacier were surveyed, pass ways from Fedchenko glacier
to Vancha valley were surveyed, the powerful ice congelation on border of
the Western Pamir was established, deposits of some minerals were found out
and other works were executed.
prospecting party of Main prospecting Department was directed to Pamir (to
Suuk-Saja valley). N.V. Krylenko was the chief of this expedition, and
scientific and technical management was carried out by geologist D.V.
Nikitin. Krylenko rised up to height of 6850 meters on Lenin Peak. It was
the highest point for Soviet climber at that time.
Tadjik expedition of the Academy of sciences worked at the territory of
Tadjik SSR. The expedition primary
goal was geographical research of east part of a Peter the Great Ridge on
Pamir, accompanied with photogrammometrical shooting of ridge area and its
of Krylenko and Nikitin expedition in 1929 and subsequent researchings of
the Tadjik expedition of 1930 only started to solve a question on
distribution of gold-bearing retinues of Sauksarskiy district in a southwest
direction. A huge mountain unit on the left board of Fedchenko glacier
remained still mysterious. It attracted climbers in 1928, seem such a close
and accessible in 1929, involved an expedition of 1930, more and more
securing the name of Garmo Unit.
Academy of sciences of the USSR directed an investigation group to the east
part of Peter the Great Ridge continuing complex works of Pamir research
begun in 1928. The task was, first of all, to make a geographical
description of this almost novel area, drawing up of its topographical map
and general geological characteristic prepareing. However geodesists,
astronomers and geologists works in severe conditions of wild highest ridges,
cutted with deep gorges with rough rivers and ice tongues demanded for the
special technical help which only skilled, trained climbers used to stay at
greater heights could render.
the Academy of sciences suggested N.V. Krylenko, the chairman of Society of
proletarian tourism to become a chapter of expedition. His experience and
organizational help were the keystone of success.
group of scouts-climbers managed by L.L. Barhash was the basic kernel of
expedition. Astronomer I.D. Zhongolovich and topographer I.G. Dorofeyev
provided cartographical works, and geologists T.B. Bohr and D.I. Shcherbakov
solved geological tasks.
Dorofeyev established a mistake of the German geodesists who defined that
Garmo Peak was the highest peak of Soviet Union when processed results of
phototheodolitic shooting of Peter the Great Ridge. It appeared, Garmo Peak
and peak 7495 (subsequently named Stalin Peak, and then Communism Peak) are
different peaks. Garmo Peak is 6595 m high, Communism Peak is 7495 m high,
being the highest top of the Soviet Union, and is located considerably to
the north of Garmo Peak. Geodesists of A.V. Moskvin group obtained the same
Tadjik complex expedition was organized. It has to solve some scientific and
practical questions. It captured various areas of researches as arisen under
the initiative of Tajikistan government, scientific geologists and heads of
the Second Between-national Polar Year.
organization and the general management of expedition was assigned to N.P.
Gorbunov. The general head of geochemical works was A.E. Fersman academician,
of geological works - D.V. Nalivkin, the curator on gold was D.V. Nikitin;
hydrological and meteorological works were spent by N.A. Kakaulov, V.I.
Popov and I.A. Kireev; over phototheodolitic and geodetic works were
supervised by I.G. Dorofeev, zoological group was supervised by E.N.
Pavlovsky academician, in the chapter of an agricultural brigade was N.I.
Vavilov academician and M.G. Popov; at last, the special climbing group was
conducted by N.V. Krylenko.
of expedition included also detailed studying of Pamir glacial areas,
conditions of snow fields formation and dynamics of a glacial feed sources
of Amu-Darja river. For this purpose a constant glaciermeteorological
station arrangement was planned on Fedchenko Glacier at height of 4000
meters. The primary goal of expedition was the physico-geographical
description of a country surface on the basis of exact triangulable and
researches of the Sovjet-German expedition in 1928 and subsequent works it
seemed, that no “white spots” remained on Pamir and Tajikistan territory,
except for the small area adjoining from the West to Garmo Peak. Actually it
was not so, and the significant part of interesting novelties was
geographical openings. Geodetic works in the Central Pamir, along Surhob,
Hingow rivers, etc were performed by the expedition. Thus triangulable items
were pawned at heights of 5000-5500 meters.
geological works captured the Central Pamirarea for the first time have,
prepareing the edition of some sheets of a geological map as a bases of a
further riches of the country. Researches captured also Pamiro-Darvazskiy
gold-bearing belt. Gold-wearing veins of Sauk-Say, sands of Mukh-Su,
northern slopes of Peter the Great Ridge, a valley of Hingou river and
Darvaz conglomerates developed since olden days were studied.
expedition was expanded and renamed to Tadjico-Pamirskaja expedition. It
concentrated attention at the sanction of some problems of heavy industry.
Its works were constructed by a territorial principle. Five basic
geographically isolated areas of Tajikistan were outlined as a result of
last year researches. They had certain complexes of minerals and independent
energy sources. According to the allocated areas of Northern Tajikistan such
as Zeravshanskiy, Stalinabadskiy, Darvazskiy and Pamir, expedition organized
groups of a number of smaller groups with independent regional bases.
Krylenko's group finished its inspection of east part of Peter the Great
Ridge, and all area appeared to be covered with topographical and geological
shooting. Thanks to heroic efforts of scientific employees and working
builders a well equipped ice-meteorological observatory was put in operation
at the greatest in the world Fedchenko Glacier, at height of 4300 meters.
incorporated group of expedition and ОПТЭ
after thorough training climbed at the highest in the USSR Stalin Peak 7495
m high, and two automatic meteorological stations were established on its
east slope at heights of 5600 and 6850 m. This climbing was accompanied wiht
lifting and installation of heavy scientific devices.
Krylenko headed great expedition to Pamir where climbers of Red Army
participated. Krylenko arrived to the camp in the second half of August. It
is necessary to notice, that he participated in all Pamir campaigns only
within his usual holiday, practically not having time for acclimatization.
was this time. Krylenko as well as all others, with a solid cargo rose to
height of 5200 m where the intermediate camp was organized. In four days, on
August 23rd Krylenko conducts all group (24 persons including commanders,
instructors and doctors) to storm the peak. On August, 29th the group
reached height of 7000 m, but weather noticeably worsened last days. There
were strong winds, snowfalls, sharp downturn of temperature, there was a
danger to froze legs, insufficient acclimatization was felt. And it was some
more hours of wearisome rise and prospect of descent per full darkness ahead.
The command was to go down! The group came back in the camp at height of
4200 m in two days.
the 8th September, 1934 he let out a group of E. Abalakov as
instructor, a pilot K.Chernuhin as a commander of group of and a commander
I.Lukin. At 16. 20 they reached the top where they established a bust of
way of climbers was hard, consequences of a bad weather affected. A
significant part of rise instructors Abalakov brothers tracked a way.
Unfortunately, E. Abalakov did not participate in a capture of peak. When
two participants frozed their legs E. Abalakov has voluntary agreed to
allocate them downwards. Nikolay Vasilevich marked Evgenie Abalakova's act
as display of the big heroism and selflessness.